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Coryphella verrucosa

(Sars M., 1829)


Erling Svensen And this one, could it be a Coryphella verrucosa? There were quite many of them, shallow on the hard rock, eating hydroides.

Bernard Picton I agree, Coryphella verrucosa, the long tail with a white line is typical of our ones. But you also have the ones with very swollen cerata which are the true/original C. verrucosa.

Klas Malmberg Aquatilis Shouldn´t verrucosa have pinkish rhinofores?

George Brown Hi Klas. On my monitor the rhinophores have a pink tinge. But maybe I've had one too many Glen Morangies tonight!

Erling Svensen Glen Morangie is my favoritE Whiskey."...

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 14 Mar 2012
Rudolf Svensen Anybody knows which nudi this is? Image captured in a fjord on the South-West coast of Norway.

Bernard Picton I would say Coryphella verrucosa, but the cerata are a bit odd. It could be in a place where all the food has been eaten...

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 06 May 2013
Erling Svensen And this one, could it be a Coryphella verrucosa? There were quite many of them, shallow on the hard rock, eating hydroides.

Bernard Picton I agree, Coryphella verrucosa, the long tail with a white line is typical of our ones. But you also have the ones with very swollen cerata which are the true/original C. verrucosa.

Klas Malmberg Aquatilis Shouldn´t verrucosa have pinkish rhinofores?

George Brown Hi Klas. On my monitor the rhinophores have a pink tinge. But maybe I've had one too many Glen Morangies tonight!

Erling Svensen Glen Morangie is my favoritE Whiskey."...

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 14 Mar 2012
Andrey Nekrasov White sea, Arctic, Russia

Andrey, sei UN ARTISTA. COMPLIMENTI !!!

Yutaka Takizawa Very Nice Shot(^。^)

Niko Ennedipi Foto fantastica, il taglio un po' meno.

Giorgio Cavallaro Very nice!

Jose Miguel Jimenez Adalia Muy buena foto :-) Si quieres puedes subir las fotos gratis en esta página Biodiversidadvirtual.org Es una página para la identificación de especies. Las fotos son a tu nombre y con copyright. Saludos.

Andrey Nekrasov Jose Miguel Jimenez Adalia - You can take a picture here, I do not mind .. I know his name - Flabellina, Coryphella verrucosa

Jeannette 'Gnet' Buizon- Cabalu How graceful! Good one :')

Vladimir Karavaev Шедевр!!!

Juan Antonio Corbas Corral super

Dieter Kudler Lovely shot!

Message posted on UWphotographers on 01 Jun 2013
Paula Lightfoot Is this Coryphella verrucosa? Or do I mean rufibranchialis? From the Farnes. It has narrow white rings on the cerata like David Kipling's photo below.

Paula Lightfoot I'd missed all those comments from January - that is interesting (and confusing!). I guess I will record it as Coryphella verrucosa for now, simply because rufibranchialis isn't available as a name to record against. It's good that online recording systems let us keep the photo as part of the record now, so if new names become available it will be easier to redetermine existing records if necessary.

Erling Svensen Looks like Flabellina verrucosa. ;-)

Ian Smith And looks like Eolis rufibranchialis Johnston on Family 3 plate 14 in Alder and Hancock, (attached). Until it is agreed on whether one or two species, it is safest to record such specimens found in Britain as Coryphella verrucosa rufibranchialis (Johnston, 1832), the name used by Thompson & Brown in "British Opisthobranch Molluscs" Lin. Soc. 1976.

Paula Lightfoot Agree but that name isn't an option to record against at the moment - it is in WoRMS but not in MS BIAS - maybe it can be added.

Bernard Picton I think MSBIAS is flawed in the way the list was drawn up. As the type locality of rufibranchialis is in the MSBIAS area it should be on the list. We also need to record segregate species as soon as there is doubt about the correctness of a synonymy. In fact George Brown has photographed true C. verrucosa in Shetland, so both names are needed in the MSBIAS area. The fact that they have different distributions is indicative of species level status so accurate distribution records are vital.

Paula Lightfoot Think this is rufibranchialis again, from the Durham Heritage Coast today. I've now seen it at Farnes, Strangford, St Abbs and here, if only we had a name to record it!

Bernard Picton It is OK to record it in the UK as C. verrucosa until we get those two published as separate species. It looks as though true C. verrucosa is only in Shetland, Norway, Denmark, etc. This is always a problem when a species is split, as often it is impossible to correctly attribute the old records unless the distributions are different.

Ian Smith I think F. verrucosa as described by Sars comes further south than Shetland; here's an image by George from Loch Fyne that he posted last November https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=4556627606450&set=a.4556627246441.168992.1614272106&type=1&theater

Bernard Picton Ian, I don't think this is C. verrucosa. I have seen this species in Iceland, but could never identify it. I have a good feel for C. verrucosa now, we saw 100's at Gulen.

Ian Smith Bernard do you agree with Robert Eriksson's posting of 30 Dec (copied below)? I find it hard to reconcile with the two (or 3 spp.) view, so I'm unsettled as to what to think. : Robert Eriksson "I did a DNA study of the long ceratal form (previoucly described as Flabellina rufibranchialis) vs this short cerata form (Flabellina verrucosa) a few years ago. The resultat was published in Organims and Diversity. Genetically there's no difference between the forms. I concluded that the species is polymorphic when it comes to COI and ITS2. And regarding the shape of the ceratas i also found in an adjacent study (unpubl) that the animals are able to longen or shorten the cerata. Regarding the coilour it all depends on hat they feed upon. White pigmentation is extremely variable all give no additional info as to deduce species."

Bernard Picton In Norway I found C. rufibranchialis as well as two forms of C. verrucosa. C. verrucosa does have variations in the ceratal shape. It was in shallower water on kelp whilst C. rufibranchialis was on Tubularia in deeper water. I think Robert probably had only C. verrucosa in his material. The two are very similar and I think it was only because I've seen hundreds of them that I saw the differences.

Ian Smith Thanks Bernard, the thought had entered my mind. DNA comparison of British rufibranchialis with Scandinavian verrucosa would settle it, I think.

Robert Eriksson I look forward to see the results of these future studies! Please keep me in the loop. Come winter we will have two nudibranch safaris collecting material for the natural history museum. Why not collaborate to resolve this, Bernard Picton , Ian Smith?

Bernard Picton Jussi Evertsen and Torkild Bakken had some sequence data from Norwegian specimens they had tentatively identified as C. browni. I think they were actually C. rufibranchialis. They had quite different CO1 sequences to C. verrucosa. We need to repeat the experiment with more specimens and more localities but we are working on all Coryphella (Flabellina) as they are so tricky.

George Brown Hi Bernard, Ian and others. If my photo is not Flabellina verrucosa could you please tell me the correct name? I don't want to add erroneous names to photos on these excellent pages.

Ian Smith Hi George. I thought it was very like Rudolf's posting which Erling said was verrucosa; what I'd say is intermediate between the two Scandinavian forms of F. verrucosa (also yours is with the right?? food) : https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10153178364465162&set=gm.433106773467275&type=1&theatre But B said yours is like an unknown sp. he's had in Iceland, so I'm backing off. You never know, you may have the first British record of it when it gets a name :-) I think we'll have to wait until Bernard and others have finished sequencing/ sorting all the Flabellina spp. -as B says, it's tricky.

George Brown Many thanks Ian. Will edit the text as soon as I gather consensus.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 07 Sep 2013
Neil Watson This nudi looks like it is feeding on the hydriods that were on the wreck of the landing craft out of Selsey. It is at a depth of about 10m. It was about 1cm long. Any ideas about what type it is?

Mary Restell Coryphella verrucosa

Jon Chamberlain Coryphella browni might be more likely: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W14500

Mary Restell yep - think you're right Jon - broader rings on the cerata tips

Message posted on Seasearch Identifications on 23 May 2013
Paula Lightfoot Is this Coryphella verrucosa? Or do I mean rufibranchialis? From the Farnes. It has narrow white rings on the cerata like David Kipling's photo below.

Paula Lightfoot I'd missed all those comments from January - that is interesting (and confusing!). I guess I will record it as Coryphella verrucosa for now, simply because rufibranchialis isn't available as a name to record against. It's good that online recording systems let us keep the photo as part of the record now, so if new names become available it will be easier to redetermine existing records if necessary.

Erling Svensen Looks like Flabellina verrucosa. ;-)

Ian Smith And looks like Eolis rufibranchialis Johnston on Family 3 plate 14 in Alder and Hancock, (attached). Until it is agreed on whether one or two species, it is safest to record such specimens found in Britain as Coryphella verrucosa rufibranchialis (Johnston, 1832), the name used by Thompson & Brown in "British Opisthobranch Molluscs" Lin. Soc. 1976.

Paula Lightfoot Agree but that name isn't an option to record against at the moment - it is in WoRMS but not in MS BIAS - maybe it can be added.

Bernard Picton I think MSBIAS is flawed in the way the list was drawn up. As the type locality of rufibranchialis is in the MSBIAS area it should be on the list. We also need to record segregate species as soon as there is doubt about the correctness of a synonymy. In fact George Brown has photographed true C. verrucosa in Shetland, so both names are needed in the MSBIAS area. The fact that they have different distributions is indicative of species level status so accurate distribution records are vital.

Paula Lightfoot Think this is rufibranchialis again, from the Durham Heritage Coast today. I've now seen it at Farnes, Strangford, St Abbs and here, if only we had a name to record it!

Bernard Picton It is OK to record it in the UK as C. verrucosa until we get those two published as separate species. It looks as though true C. verrucosa is only in Shetland, Norway, Denmark, etc. This is always a problem when a species is split, as often it is impossible to correctly attribute the old records unless the distributions are different.

Ian Smith I think F. verrucosa as described by Sars comes further south than Shetland; here's an image by George from Loch Fyne that he posted last November https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=4556627606450&set=a.4556627246441.168992.1614272106&type=1&theater

Bernard Picton Ian, I don't think this is C. verrucosa. I have seen this species in Iceland, but could never identify it. I have a good feel for C. verrucosa now, we saw 100's at Gulen.

Ian Smith Bernard do you agree with Robert Eriksson's posting of 30 Dec (copied below)? I find it hard to reconcile with the two (or 3 spp.) view, so I'm unsettled as to what to think. : Robert Eriksson "I did a DNA study of the long ceratal form (previoucly described as Flabellina rufibranchialis) vs this short cerata form (Flabellina verrucosa) a few years ago. The resultat was published in Organims and Diversity. Genetically there's no difference between the forms. I concluded that the species is polymorphic when it comes to COI and ITS2. And regarding the shape of the ceratas i also found in an adjacent study (unpubl) that the animals are able to longen or shorten the cerata. Regarding the coilour it all depends on hat they feed upon. White pigmentation is extremely variable all give no additional info as to deduce species."

Bernard Picton In Norway I found C. rufibranchialis as well as two forms of C. verrucosa. C. verrucosa does have variations in the ceratal shape. It was in shallower water on kelp whilst C. rufibranchialis was on Tubularia in deeper water. I think Robert probably had only C. verrucosa in his material. The two are very similar and I think it was only because I've seen hundreds of them that I saw the differences.

Ian Smith Thanks Bernard, the thought had entered my mind. DNA comparison of British rufibranchialis with Scandinavian verrucosa would settle it, I think.

Robert Eriksson I look forward to see the results of these future studies! Please keep me in the loop. Come winter we will have two nudibranch safaris collecting material for the natural history museum. Why not collaborate to resolve this, Bernard Picton , Ian Smith?

Bernard Picton Jussi Evertsen and Torkild Bakken had some sequence data from Norwegian specimens they had tentatively identified as C. browni. I think they were actually C. rufibranchialis. They had quite different CO1 sequences to C. verrucosa. We need to repeat the experiment with more specimens and more localities but we are working on all Coryphella (Flabellina) as they are so tricky.

George Brown Hi Bernard, Ian and others. If my photo is not Flabellina verrucosa could you please tell me the correct name? I don't want to add erroneous names to photos on these excellent pages.

Ian Smith Hi George. I thought it was very like Rudolf's posting which Erling said was verrucosa; what I'd say is intermediate between the two Scandinavian forms of F. verrucosa (also yours is with the right?? food) : https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10153178364465162&set=gm.433106773467275&type=1&theatre But B said yours is like an unknown sp. he's had in Iceland, so I'm backing off. You never know, you may have the first British record of it when it gets a name :-) I think we'll have to wait until Bernard and others have finished sequencing/ sorting all the Flabellina spp. -as B says, it's tricky.

George Brown Many thanks Ian. Will edit the text as soon as I gather consensus.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 07 Sep 2013
George Brown Might this be Cuthona nana? Found grazing scyphistoma polyp phase of Aurelia aurita. Pinnacles in the middle of Loch Fyne (location to be confirmed).

Terry Gosliner This looks like Flabellina salmonacea to me.

Joanne Porter Beautiful image George Brown

George Brown Thank you Terry. Checking SSF, the nudibranch does indeed have "subapical white band on cerata". I'll crop and post a close-up of the cerata.

George Brown Thank you Joanne. Are you on the next Seasearch Orkney trip? Can't wait! Was there a couple of weeks ago but it was all wide angle/fisheye stuff. Kept getting distracted finding nudibranchs!

Joanne Porter I will be on the next seasearch trip! Looking forward to seeing you there George Brown. We saw a few nudibranchs but we could have done with some help from you for identifying them.

Jim Anderson Could it be Catriona gymnota?

Marco Faasse I'm not sure which species of nudibranch this is. Anyway, Flabellina/Coryphella verrucosa is known as a predator of scyphopolyps: Hydrobiologia 355: 21"28, 1997. A. D. Naumov, H. Hummel, A. A. Sukhotin & J. S. Ryland (eds), Interactions and Adaptation Strategies of Marine Organisms. Abundance, feeding behaviour and nematocysts of scyphopolyps (Cnidaria) and nematocysts in their predator, the nudibranch Coryphella verrucosa (Mollusca) Carina O¨ stman

George Brown Thank you Jim and Marco. I'll be posting a close-up of the cerata later. Anything else I can do to assist id?

Jim Anderson On mature reflection I agree with Marco - Flabellina verrucosa

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 26 Nov 2012
Shôn Roberts A few photos I took in the Straits near the cables on Thursday evening. Coryphella Browni ?

Liz Morris looks like it to me, but i dont have my nudi book with me... ill have a check tomorrow. think it can be confused with coryphella verrucosa? do you know that most of the info in the nudi book is shown on the encyclopedia of marine life of britain and ireland?

Shôn Roberts Thanks for that Liz.

Message posted on Seasearch North Wales on 17 May 2013
Taxonomy
Animalia (Kingdom)
  Mollusca (Phylum)
    Gastropoda (Class)
      Heterobranchia (Subclass)
        Opisthobranchia (Infraclass)
          Nudibranchia (Order)
            Dexiarchia (Suborder)
              Aeolidida (Infraorder)
                Flabellinoidea (Superfamily)
                  Flabellinidae (Family)
                    Coryphella (Genus)
                      Coryphella verrucosa (Species)
Associated Species