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Posidonia oceanica

(Linnaeus) Delile, 1813


Francesco Benedetto Cratena peregrina. La cratena peregrina è un nudibranco, appartenente alla famiglia dei Cratenidae. Il corpo bianco-giallo opaco o parzialmente traslucido, cerata appariscenti, più o meno abbondanti, di colore arancio, viola-blu verso la parte terminale. Rinofori dello stesso colore del corpo alla base, poi arancio. Presenti due macchie arancio davanti ai rinofori e due lunghi tentacoli orali al di sotto di essi. Fino a 5 centimetri. Spesso reperibile assieme al nudibranco Flabellina affinis. La C. peregrina è segnalata come piuttosto aggressiva nei confronti dei propri simili e di altre specie. La difesa avviene tramite gli cnidosacchi posti al termine dei cerata, dove la C. peregrina immagazzina gli cnidoblasti dell'idroide Eudendrium. Se minacciata erige i cerata verso il possibile nemico per allontanarlo. Endemica del Mar Mediterraneo, ma presente anche in Danimarca e nel Mare del Nord, molto comune fino a 30 metri di profondità su fondali rocciosi, caratterizzati spesso da coralligeno, o tra Posidonia oceanica. Spesso molto abbondante in alcune zone. ---------------------------------------------------- Cratena tiré par les cheveux. Le Cratena peregrina est un nudibranche, appartenant à la famille des Cratenidae. Le corps jaune-cire blanche opaque ou partiellement translucide flashy, plus ou moins abondante, orange, violet-bleu vers le terminal. Rhynophores la même couleur que le corps de l'embase, puis orange. Sont deux taches orange en face de deux rhinophores longs et des tentacules oraux en dessous d'eux. Jusqu'à 5 cm. On retrouve souvent avec le nudibranche Flabellina affinis. Le C. peregrina est signalé comme plutôt agressifs envers leur propre espèce et d'autres espèces. La défense est à travers les endroits cnidosacchi à la fin de la cire, où C. peregrina stocke le dell'idroide Eudendrium cnidoblasti. Si érige menacées ciré vers une possible ennemi de le destituer. Endémiques à la Méditerranée, mais aussi au Danemark et en mer du Nord, très commun jusqu'à 30 pieds de profondeur sur des fonds rocheux, souvent caractérisées par des coraux, ou entre Posidonia oceanica. Souvent très abondant dans certaines régions. ------------------------------------------------------ Cratena farfetched. The Cratena peregrina is a nudibranch, belonging to the family of Cratenidae. The body yellow-white opaque or partially translucent wax flashy, more or less abundant, orange, violet-blue towards the terminal. Rhynophores the same color of the body to the base, then orange. Are two orange spots in front of two long rhinophores and oral tentacles below them. Up to 5 cm. Often found together with the nudibranch Flabellina affinis. The C. peregrina is reported as rather aggressive towards their own kind and other species. The defense is through the cnidosacchi places at the end of the waxed, where C. peregrina stores the cnidoblasti dell'idroide Eudendrium. If threatened erects waxed towards possible enemy to remove him. Endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, but also in Denmark and the North Sea, very common up to 30 feet deep on rocky bottoms, often characterized by coral, or between Posidonia oceanica. Often very abundant in some areas.

Message posted on Scubashooters.net on 06 Jul 2013
Antoni López-Arenas Cama Do you think this could be Cuthona amoena or foliata? Found in Mataró (near Barcelona in the Mediterranean Sea) at 18m depth between Posidonia oceanica leaves. Its size was around 1-2 mm. Thank you! http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/8672317737/in/photostream

João Pedro Silva Why not C. rubescens?

Antoni López-Arenas Cama why not... why yes? :-) Thanks

João Pedro Silva I'm suggesting this due to the "red pigment at the bases of the cerata": http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W14730

Antoni López-Arenas Cama but i don't know if is dark red or brown like Cuthona amoena :-P http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W14660

João Pedro Silva You may be right. Plus the rings on the oral tentacles... not an easy one to ID.

Egidio Trainito Cuthona foliata is not considered a mediterranean species (misidentified C.genovae); I think that it is Cuthona amoena, Cuthona granosa is quite different with head body, rhinophores and oral tentacles covered with very fine opaque white. On rhinophores and head tentacles bright orange on the outer parts, look at this: http://opistobranquis.info/en/guia-dopistobranquis/nudibranquis-nudibranchia/eolidacis-aeolidina/cuthona-granosa/

Antoni López-Arenas Cama Egidio Trainito, between Cuthona amoena and Cuthona rubescens, do you think it is clearly amoena? Thank you!

Egidio Trainito C.rubescens is not a mediterranean species, I confirm my opinion: C.amoena.

Peter H van Bragt Peter H van Bragt C. amoena could indeed be a realistic candidate. The dark spot in the head region (oesophagus), granular cerat content and dark rings in both rhinophores and head tentacles is what we also see here in the Netherlands in C, amoena. But its not realy easy to give such a species a name from a photograph of such a small specimen. On what sort of hydroid did you find it??

Bernard Picton It is more like C. amoena than C. rubescens; note the brown mark on the oral tentacles, never present in C. rubescens. It isn't quite the same as any C. amoena I've ever seen, but most species look a little different in the Mediterranean.

Bernard Picton We need to start work on the gordian knots.. http://www.plosone.org/article/authors/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047214;jsessionid=C7E26F234C576859D205953D222F1F8B

Antoni López-Arenas Cama I think that Cuthona foliata can be a Mediterranean specie. In past some authors misidentified C.genovae as foliata, but this doesn't mean that there aren't Cuthona foliata in Mediterranean sea.

Antoni López-Arenas Cama Here you can see the "Updated checklist of the opisthobranchs from the Catalan coasts": http://www.molluscat.com/SPIRA/PDF/Spira_2_3_5.pdf

Egidio Trainito Previously C.foliata was signaled for Malta but the specimen looked like a very small C.genovae, it would be interesting to see Catalan specimens. Thanks for the useful pdf.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 30 Apr 2013
Taxonomy
Plantae (Kingdom)
  Viridaeplantae (Subkingdom)
    Tracheophyta (Phylum)
      Spermatophytina (Subphylum)
        Magnoliidae (Subclass)
          Lilianae (Superorder)
            Alismatales (Order)
              Posidoniaceae (Family)
                Posidonia (Genus)
                  Posidonia oceanica (Species)
Associated Species