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Cuthona foliata

(Forbes & Goodsir, 1839)

Terry Griffiths From this morning dive 5mm in size .Cuthona foliata

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 11 Oct 2013
Egidio Trainito I would like to have opinions about the nudibranch I am posting. It comes from both sides of Thyrrenian sea (Mediterranean) and my opinion is that the ID is Cuthona foliata, much commoner in NE Atlantic. I do not think it is C.genovae as shape and colour of cerata are quite different. Thanks you all.

Brendan Oonk There is a broad yellow median band running from between the rhinophores back to the heart. This is one of the characteristics of C.genovae

Bernard Picton This is certainly not Cuthona foliata. It is the species which we call Cuthona genovae, following Bouchet's paper of 1976. I think there may be other species with similar coloration in Norway though... http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W14700

Bernard Picton Bouchet, P. (1976) Trinchesia genovae (O'Donoghue, 1926) éolidien méconnu du littoral Méditerranéen. Beaufortia, Zoological Museum Univ. Amsterdam 26: 235-242 .

Egidio Trainito Thank you Brendan and Bernard, maybe we have to go back to O'Donoghue, 1926 description from eastern Med. I know that the specimen in my post looks like the one in habitas.com, but what are then the coloured genovae we usually find? Different species or different diet?

Bernard Picton Yes, we need to look at the O'Donoghue description then! I think these ones have very different cerata, not only in colour but also shape...

Egidio Trainito I agree

Egidio Trainito I am going through Trinchese and de Quatrefages, and everything is far from clarifying, should we go molecular?

Bernard Picton Molecular will tell us if we have two species with similar markings, as long as we look at the right genes. We'd need several of each type to check how much variation there is within species. If there are two species then attaching one of them to the name genovae will probably depend on whether the original description is detailed enough. Ideally we also will need some specimens from a wide geographical area. Jussi Evertsen has photos of a possible Trinchesia foliata from Norway which looked very interesting and a bit different to T. foliata in the UK.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 18 Sep 2013
Klas Malmberg Aquatilis This is at nudie from Norway, Gulen. Identified as Eubranchus farrani. Do you agree? This form with the white pigment on the head is quite common in Gulen.

João Pedro Silva Not E. farrani, at least not like any of the several variations I've seen. Not sure what it is, though. I'd consider Cuthona sp.

Klas Malmberg Aquatilis Im not convinced myself as you can guess of that this is a E. farrani. It has typical white pigment on the rhinofores and on the tentakles. It also has the scattered white pigment on the cerata that makes it special - but... I dont know what it is! Sometimes it has a couple of red small pigmentdots on the dorsum but its lacking in this picture.

João Pedro Silva If this had red marking I'd go for Cuthona foliata... but I don't see them here.

Brendan Oonk If it would have had red bands on the rhinofores it could be Cuthona amoena.......?

João Pedro Silva Brendan, I think you're right. It could be C. amoena. The brown bands on the rhinophores may be very subtle: http://www.seaslugforum.net/message/22029

Tony Gilbert It does have a similar colouration to Eubranchus pallidus but I think its C.amoena as wel.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 11 Jun 2012
Pascal Van Acker have some body pictures of eggs from doto maculata,doto sasiae,eubranchus pallidus and trinchesia foliate

Terry Griffiths Pascal i have some of E. pallidus taken last week

Pascal Van Acker thanks Terry

Brendan Oonk Execpt for the eggs of Cuthona foliata, there are pics of all the eggs of the nudis you mention in the new "Ecological Atlas of marine mollusca of the Netherlands", of which the first copy was presented today...

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 26 May 2013
Antoni López-Arenas Cama Do you think this could be Cuthona amoena or foliata? Found in Mataró (near Barcelona in the Mediterranean Sea) at 18m depth between Posidonia oceanica leaves. Its size was around 1-2 mm. Thank you! http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/8672317737/in/photostream

João Pedro Silva Why not C. rubescens?

Antoni López-Arenas Cama why not... why yes? :-) Thanks

João Pedro Silva I'm suggesting this due to the "red pigment at the bases of the cerata": http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W14730

Antoni López-Arenas Cama but i don't know if is dark red or brown like Cuthona amoena :-P http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W14660

João Pedro Silva You may be right. Plus the rings on the oral tentacles... not an easy one to ID.

Egidio Trainito Cuthona foliata is not considered a mediterranean species (misidentified C.genovae); I think that it is Cuthona amoena, Cuthona granosa is quite different with head body, rhinophores and oral tentacles covered with very fine opaque white. On rhinophores and head tentacles bright orange on the outer parts, look at this: http://opistobranquis.info/en/guia-dopistobranquis/nudibranquis-nudibranchia/eolidacis-aeolidina/cuthona-granosa/

Antoni López-Arenas Cama Egidio Trainito, between Cuthona amoena and Cuthona rubescens, do you think it is clearly amoena? Thank you!

Egidio Trainito C.rubescens is not a mediterranean species, I confirm my opinion: C.amoena.

Peter H van Bragt Peter H van Bragt C. amoena could indeed be a realistic candidate. The dark spot in the head region (oesophagus), granular cerat content and dark rings in both rhinophores and head tentacles is what we also see here in the Netherlands in C, amoena. But its not realy easy to give such a species a name from a photograph of such a small specimen. On what sort of hydroid did you find it??

Bernard Picton It is more like C. amoena than C. rubescens; note the brown mark on the oral tentacles, never present in C. rubescens. It isn't quite the same as any C. amoena I've ever seen, but most species look a little different in the Mediterranean.

Bernard Picton We need to start work on the gordian knots.. http://www.plosone.org/article/authors/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047214;jsessionid=C7E26F234C576859D205953D222F1F8B

Antoni López-Arenas Cama I think that Cuthona foliata can be a Mediterranean specie. In past some authors misidentified C.genovae as foliata, but this doesn't mean that there aren't Cuthona foliata in Mediterranean sea.

Antoni López-Arenas Cama Here you can see the "Updated checklist of the opisthobranchs from the Catalan coasts": http://www.molluscat.com/SPIRA/PDF/Spira_2_3_5.pdf

Egidio Trainito Previously C.foliata was signaled for Malta but the specimen looked like a very small C.genovae, it would be interesting to see Catalan specimens. Thanks for the useful pdf.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 30 Apr 2013
Antoni López-Arenas Cama An old Cuthona opisthodoubt: http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/8556837457/ Found in Tossa de Mar (Costa Brava - Mediterranean Sea). I found it twice in the same place, two months before: http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/6113549989/ It was between posidonia leafs at 5m depth. It could seem Cuthona genovae, but without the caracteristic yellow line on his head.

Antoni López-Arenas Cama Do you think it could be Cuthona foliata like this specimen from Malta?: http://www.naturamalta.com/Cuthona_foliata.html

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 06 May 2013
Vishal Bhave ID Please Tentative ID Cuthona sp.?? Size: 2-4 mm Depth- 2.5 feet Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

Bernard Picton The markings remind me of Cuthona genovae, so you could call it cf. genovae in the absence of anything else.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cf.

Vishal Bhave with Cuthona genovae (http://www.marbef.org/modules.php?name=Photogallery&album=152&pic=957) there are one more species is in a circle - Cuthona foliata (http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=mollusca&id=640) ; i have now enough specimens (will preserved). In this species the base of rhinophores are orangish, and reflective fine white spots were absent (i will take more closerlook under microscope). Can anybody tell me the important features to look while dissecting these 4 mm animals ??

Bernard Picton Marta Pola, does Terry dissect these tiny ones? Malcolm Edmunds reconstructs them from serial sections, so Vishal I think that is what you need to do. However if you look at the Trinchesia/Cuthona in Edmunds Tanzanian paper you will see that the reproductive systems are really all the same. Given that you cannot use the reproductive system to identify the animals in the field I think it is not necessary to describe the reproductive system when there are good colour characters which can be used for identification.

Marta Pola Hi Bernard. Yes, I think he does. I have a species of Cuhona from deep waters and It is true that the reproductive system are all the same...I don´t know which species is..

Lucas CerCur The same tale.....ha, ha, ha.

Lucas CerCur Always....

Vishal Bhave I just now saw mating of this species; the penis has stylet at the tip is slightly curved (Unfortunately i didn't get image of that) but i have image of mating slugs (https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-qilqsKn4ZP0/UQPTP3aOfaI/AAAAAAAAP2I/wUMFWoIpWPQ/s640/Untitled.jpg)

Animalia (Kingdom)
  Mollusca (Phylum)
    Gastropoda (Class)
      Heterobranchia (Subclass)
        Opisthobranchia (Infraclass)
          Nudibranchia (Order)
            Dexiarchia (Suborder)
              Aeolidida (Infraorder)
                Fionoidea (Superfamily)
                  Tergipedidae (Family)
                    Cuthona (Genus)
                      Cuthona foliata (Species)
Associated Species