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Coryphella lineata

(Lovén, 1846)


Tony Gilbert Thought the many wavy lines on the cerata where quite unusual for a Coryphella lineata, or perhaps I hadn't seen them before!

Terry Griffiths Yes Tony had a few of them at Plymouth this year.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 14 Jun 2012
Terry Griffiths Coryphella lineata but a different colour compared to the others at the dive site.

Christian Skauge This is the variation we very often see at the Nudibranch Safari at Gulen, Norway. There has been talk of two separate species... I think Jussi Evertsen and Torkild Bakken are doing some DNA work on them :-)

Terry Griffiths Thanks Christian this is the first time i had see this colour variation , also i hope to do Gulen next year .

Tony Gilbert I've also seen several variations of this nudibranch, notably at Maddy Mhor (Outer Hebrides) so perhaps there is a northern variation? http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyjgilbert-images/5083820173/in/set-72157624688589439/

Christian Skauge Maybe :) But around Oslo I have never seen it - seems to be mainly a west coast phenomenon here...

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 14 May 2012
Terry Griffiths After talking with Bernard P another Coryphella lineata

Tony Gilbert And eggs behind it ?

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 14 May 2012
Jørn Ari 12-10-2011 Kongebrogaarden - Lillebælt - Danmark Jorn Ari

Jørn Ari Erling Svensen . The Danish version

Bernard Picton In Coryphella lineata the lines are continuous, with lines at the sides of the body as well as down the midline. The lines on the head tentacles form a Y on top of the head...

Bernard Picton Jorn, do you ever have the form with the short cerata?

Jørn Ari Yes. http://www.nudibranchia.dk/flabellina-verrucosa-aeolid.html

Jørn Ari We see more of those with long cerata

Bernard Picton Ok, do they mate with each other?

Jørn Ari I Think so. I also believe that they mate with other flabellina and facelina, making it difficult to idintify the offspring.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 17 Jan 2013
Tamsyn MAnn Hi! Is this a Coryphella lineata? Thanks.

Peter H van Bragt Hi Tamsyn, No it is not a Coryphella lineata. It might have been two Coryphella lineata's but we have changed the name to Flabellina lineata some time ago. ;-) The white pigment lines on the cerata, head tentacles and body are very distinct. Cheers Peter H van Bragt

Tony Gilbert I still think of these as Coryphella lineata, but they are now Flabellina, as the parent has been identified as a Flabellina.

Tamsyn MAnn Cool, thanks. Apart from the name change, at least I got the ID right!! :-)

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 17 Aug 2012
Penny Martin Please help settle a discussion between me and a friend, is this coryphella lineata or browni?

David Kipling What features would you look for to differentiate between the two?

Penny Martin white lines down the middle and sides of back ??????

David Kipling Can you waft the cerata out of the way so we can see please ;)

Rob Spray My, quick non expert opinion, would be that the rhinophores suggest this is Facelina auriculata not a Coryphella as they are lamellate...

David Kipling Good eyesight Rob! Can you post a blow-up of the head Penny - in particular that upper rhinophore (the short backwards one, not the longer lower oral process).

Rob Spray I could just be imagining it. I don't think you need a blow to see the rhinophores aren't smooth or even rugose. To be honest there's a difference in the overall appearance (I can't get used to saying jizz) that guides away from Coryphella/Flabellinas. The very long oral processes, lamellate rhinophores, broad body and density and organisation of cerata...

David Kipling Bernard also comments that all the Flabellids (is that the right word?) "conspicuous pointed propodial tentacles at the front corners of the foot". In other words, a couple of additional short pointy things below those long oral processes. I don't see those on this. The pics of C brownii on habitas illustrates this nicely.

David Kipling I wonder if a drawing of a typical flab next an Facelina would be useful - labelling up the different comparative features? As you say, there is a jizz thing. How are your drawings skills Rob?

Rob Spray I don't normally get to draw... I often think what is x? But usually it's because I'm dwelling on the similarities not going for the key features - rhinophores here.

George Brown Another non expert view. On the evidence a Facelina sp. but the "gizz" for me suggests bostoniensis. Need more photos to confirm. It's digital - take loads!

Rob Spray You are completely right... that is what I meant to type! Thanks George Brown. Nothing like auriculata what was I thinking!

George Brown Nae bother. Got to say that on the evidence it'd go down on my Seasearch form as a Facelina sp. Sometimes "gizz" is not enough. Coming from film cameras I'm still guilty of not taking enough digital shots. Maybe why it takes me so long to complete a form!

David Kipling So in answer to Penny's original question ("is this coryphella lineata or browni") the answer is 'no' ;)

David Kipling The pic on Habitas shows these various features Rob mentioned quite well: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15260

Rob Spray I'm ashamed... I was so excited to be able to tweak Kipling I let my typing run ahead of my brain, not for the first time. To me although bostoniensis is quite variable they are distinct from the auriculatas we see here and the annulicornis we've seen elsewhere to be a fairly positive ID. I wish I could edit that first post so this thread doesn't start with a misleading mistake...

David Kipling PMSL!

Rob Spray Tena professor?

George Brown Wish I knew what you guys were talking about! I don't even know what "WTF" means. Must be my Presbyterian upbringing!

David Kipling The Victorian equivalent is UMS (upon my soul) George ;)

David Kipling This thread has been a good example of where we've actually discussed the ID and why it might be this versus something else. I am aware that it's easy for these threads to just be "what's this? Oh it's XYZ", which may give the ID but doesn't help anyone else reading in to improve their own ID skills. This is particular important I think for those difficult groups, where there are a lot that look the same and need a good dose of looking at to tease apart. Capturing that sense of jizz is particularly tricky but is often the way we do the ID.

Penny Martin wow ..... what a discussion .... i feel a real novice now ... and definitely need a new ID book .... we are seeing lots similar to this .... and I wonder what they are ???? Thanks for the advice ... I will look again at my photos and see if I can pick the details out .....

Andy Horton It might be an idea with nudibranchs to note the habitat and organisms nearby. And any other small details.

Penny Martin so what was the conclusion on this one ?? bostoniensis or auriculata

David Kipling Auriculata is a bright purple colour, so bostoniensis.

Inga Williamson And longitudinal white bar between rhinophores. Sorted.

Erling Svensen Flabellina lineata - Norway.

Claretta Spada Che foto.... Meravigliosa

Bernard Picton Did you just take this, Erling? I’m surprised that they are adult and spawning at this time of the year?

Becky Hitchin Meager pickings!

Bernard Picton But Becky, they have fulfilled their destiny. They have converted most of the Tubularia biomass into the next generation of Coryphella lineata....

Erling Svensen Bernard - the picture is from May this year. I am "cleaning up" in old RAW files - so you are right. The picture are not from this time of the year. So the FLABELLINA are just one of my favorites.....

Becky Hitchin It's the ciiiiiiircle of life ....

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 05 Nov 2013
Jørn Ari Snoghøj - Lillebælt OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Copyright: Jorn Ari

Jim Anderson I would say it is not - it looks more like Flabellina browni to me

Jørn Ari But what about the red oesophagus, situated just behind the rhinophores, is clearly visible?

Robert Eriksson Look at the length of the oral tentacles,, they are about the same as the rhinohores=flabellina if much longer then Facelina! Rings and colour are not very stable traits for species discrimination!

Robert Eriksson .. blooper.. Rings on the Rhinophores (lamellae) are a stable trait though. Not sure what you mean mean rings Jorn? Coloured rings of e.g. White pigmentstions are not stable for species deduction in any species of the Flabellina or Facelina (personlopinion).

Robert Eriksson ... Mind that the oral tentacle and rhinophores are retractible and you need to Watch the animal for some time to be able to deduce it's "normal" relaxed state. I agree that it is a Flabellina, but never saw brownii as a good species - any gene-studies done on brownii?

Jørn Ari I ment lamellae

Bernard Picton Sorry, but I completely disagree with you Robert Eriksson, details of coloration are very good characters, but you have to weight them by how big and mature each individual animal is. There is considerable evidence that CO1 barcode sequences are identical in closely related species of marine invertebrates, so the DNA evidence is partly dependent on which bit of DNA you sequence. There is a lot of observing and collecting to be done yet before we have all the answers...

Lucas CerCur I agree with you Bernard Picton

Bernard Picton Oh, and I should say I've seen hundreds of Coryphella browni in the field, kept them in containers with Coryphella lineata which they were sharing their Tubularia indivisa with, watched them considering whether to mate with a C. lineata and deciding not to....

Lucas CerCur I have seen photos of Trapania lineata mating with supposed T. fusca!!!!! from southern Spain.

Bernard Picton ;-) so then we have to determine whether the offspring were fertile. Horse + Donkey = Ass.

Bernard Picton So absence of mating is evidence of separate species, if mating is possible by the species normally sharing a habitat.

Bernard Picton But cross-species mating occurs, and sometimes hybrids are even fertile. It is thought from DNA evidence that the "species" Alcyonium hibernicum is a hybrid, yet it occurs in areas where neither parent is present.

Lucas CerCur Of course.

Lucas CerCur As I told to my students, Biology is no Maths

Lucas CerCur Fortunately....

Robert Eriksson Don't be sorry, for disagreeing, Bernard Picton, these discussions are advancing our knowledge! I would like to expain myself briefly about the colouration issue. In Flabellina, the colouration of the rhinophores and the cerata is very variable, at least when looking at Nordic specimens. Some specimens have rings, some have a partial ring, some have only spots of pigment. I am only claiming these traits in adult specimens. Colouration might be stable in other species. Of course variability of genes depends on what part of the DNA you are sequencing, as you stated. Thats why you tend to use noncoding or at least more variable genes (with a "faster evolution") for deducing closely related species. I am truly confident in that we never will have all the answers...

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 08 Jan 2013
Tamsyn MAnn Hi! Is this a Coryphella lineata? Thanks.

Peter H van Bragt Hi Tamsyn, No it is not a Coryphella lineata. It might have been two Coryphella lineata's but we have changed the name to Flabellina lineata some time ago. ;-) The white pigment lines on the cerata, head tentacles and body are very distinct. Cheers Peter H van Bragt

Tony Gilbert I still think of these as Coryphella lineata, but they are now Flabellina, as the parent has been identified as a Flabellina.

Tamsyn MAnn Cool, thanks. Apart from the name change, at least I got the ID right!! :-)

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 17 Aug 2012
Keith Hiscock Following-on Erling's theme of "what is eating the Corymorpha?", I am struggling with this one - I have labelled it Coryphella ?browni. Where I dive, I am lucky to see 20 Corymorpha (this year) in a part of one dive. Any authoritative identifications?

Christian Skauge I would guess Facelina bostoniensis on the big one :)

Tony Gilbert I'd be still thinking C. browni, as I don't see any blue tinges around the head or cerata, and the food source for browni is specific to Tubularia. http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyjgilbert-images/3781037318/in/set-72157624864203330

Jim Anderson Looks very like Facelina bostoniensis to me - are the white patches behind the head not significant. I've not seen that on F. browni. Tony - I think yours is F. bostoniensis too - see Bernard Picton's description here - http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15260

Christian Skauge I think Tony's are F. bostoniensis too! In Norwegian the are called "red headed flabellina".

Tony Gilbert Thanks guys, a mis-id in 2008 -> I hadn't revisited until now. Yes, I agree with you, this is definitely much larger and bulkier than C. browni, no blue iridescence that I can see. The image of Bernards was exactly like the one that was found on a Eigg dive site we dived last year. Of course now you've whetted my curiosity I've checked the 2010 ones, and I think they are the same mis-id'd: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyjgilbert-images/5093719938/in/set-72157625217786802 http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyjgilbert-images/5093722214/in/set-72157625217786802 The AKKA is a fantastic reff-dive, I always reef dived it in the past, its a haven for marine life, it should be a protected wreck. Its a shame Clutha has now gone. Anyways, in 2010 we discovered an area that consistently has these nudibranchs in and eggs, probably because their food sources are so plentiful. The shot was midships port-side, and an area to the rear of the bridge, underneath a fallen mast, this was literally covered in them. I do miss diving the AKKA for this reason. Many thanks.

Christian Skauge The first one I would say is a Facelina bostoniensis, the second one is a Flabellina lineata just like you have written. The Facelina is one of the few species we continue to find during the summer here in Norway, and they grow bigger and bigger. By July we have to start watching where we put our hands :-D

Tony Gilbert I can imagine, its all the voracious munching they do. We see fields of stripped Tubularia in Menai Straits in North Wales. Coryphella lineata, me think so too. I think the same colourations are definitely from the same food sources they are eating.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 10 May 2012
Wendy Northway help needed IDing this nudi - Loch Fyne again at about 10-15m. Sorry for the quality of picture - as usual, had the wrong lens on camera for small stuff!

David Kipling Very small Flab lineata?

Liz Morris Flabellina lineata? That's a new one on me David Kipling, or do you mean Coryphella lineata? http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/index.html Wendy, I'm afraid I'm having a nudi confidence crisis here, so will admit I again have no idea!! Might be worth another ask of Claire Goodwin if she's not too busy?

David Kipling Yes, Flab is synonym for Coryphella. Not sure which is most uptodate.

David Kipling http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/flabline

David Kipling Jim's album of this species : http://www.nudibranch.org/Scottish%20Nudibranchs/flabellina-lineata.html

Liz Morris thank you david - you are wise :)

David Kipling (which is a synonym for 'sad geek'!)

Rob Spray Euphemism I reckon :-)

Liz Morris I think geeks are generally very cool. The rest of the world just need to catch up!

Message posted on Seasearch North Wales on 13 Apr 2012
Penny Martin Please help settle a discussion between me and a friend, is this coryphella lineata or browni?

David Kipling What features would you look for to differentiate between the two?

Penny Martin white lines down the middle and sides of back ??????

David Kipling Can you waft the cerata out of the way so we can see please ;)

Rob Spray My, quick non expert opinion, would be that the rhinophores suggest this is Facelina auriculata not a Coryphella as they are lamellate...

David Kipling Good eyesight Rob! Can you post a blow-up of the head Penny - in particular that upper rhinophore (the short backwards one, not the longer lower oral process).

Rob Spray I could just be imagining it. I don't think you need a blow to see the rhinophores aren't smooth or even rugose. To be honest there's a difference in the overall appearance (I can't get used to saying jizz) that guides away from Coryphella/Flabellinas. The very long oral processes, lamellate rhinophores, broad body and density and organisation of cerata...

David Kipling Bernard also comments that all the Flabellids (is that the right word?) "conspicuous pointed propodial tentacles at the front corners of the foot". In other words, a couple of additional short pointy things below those long oral processes. I don't see those on this. The pics of C brownii on habitas illustrates this nicely.

David Kipling I wonder if a drawing of a typical flab next an Facelina would be useful - labelling up the different comparative features? As you say, there is a jizz thing. How are your drawings skills Rob?

Rob Spray I don't normally get to draw... I often think what is x? But usually it's because I'm dwelling on the similarities not going for the key features - rhinophores here.

George Brown Another non expert view. On the evidence a Facelina sp. but the "gizz" for me suggests bostoniensis. Need more photos to confirm. It's digital - take loads!

Rob Spray You are completely right... that is what I meant to type! Thanks George Brown. Nothing like auriculata what was I thinking!

George Brown Nae bother. Got to say that on the evidence it'd go down on my Seasearch form as a Facelina sp. Sometimes "gizz" is not enough. Coming from film cameras I'm still guilty of not taking enough digital shots. Maybe why it takes me so long to complete a form!

David Kipling So in answer to Penny's original question ("is this coryphella lineata or browni") the answer is 'no' ;)

David Kipling The pic on Habitas shows these various features Rob mentioned quite well: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15260

Rob Spray I'm ashamed... I was so excited to be able to tweak Kipling I let my typing run ahead of my brain, not for the first time. To me although bostoniensis is quite variable they are distinct from the auriculatas we see here and the annulicornis we've seen elsewhere to be a fairly positive ID. I wish I could edit that first post so this thread doesn't start with a misleading mistake...

David Kipling PMSL!

Rob Spray Tena professor?

George Brown Wish I knew what you guys were talking about! I don't even know what "WTF" means. Must be my Presbyterian upbringing!

David Kipling The Victorian equivalent is UMS (upon my soul) George ;)

David Kipling This thread has been a good example of where we've actually discussed the ID and why it might be this versus something else. I am aware that it's easy for these threads to just be "what's this? Oh it's XYZ", which may give the ID but doesn't help anyone else reading in to improve their own ID skills. This is particular important I think for those difficult groups, where there are a lot that look the same and need a good dose of looking at to tease apart. Capturing that sense of jizz is particularly tricky but is often the way we do the ID.

Penny Martin wow ..... what a discussion .... i feel a real novice now ... and definitely need a new ID book .... we are seeing lots similar to this .... and I wonder what they are ???? Thanks for the advice ... I will look again at my photos and see if I can pick the details out .....

Andy Horton It might be an idea with nudibranchs to note the habitat and organisms nearby. And any other small details.

Penny Martin so what was the conclusion on this one ?? bostoniensis or auriculata

David Kipling Auriculata is a bright purple colour, so bostoniensis.

Inga Williamson And longitudinal white bar between rhinophores. Sorted.

Penny Martin Loads of egg ribbons around here ... Onchidoris bilamellata??

David Fenwick Snr Probably best not to guess when it comes to eggs unless you find the species laying them as there are many species of sea slug. Also remember that some sea slugs eat sea slug eggs so they may not be the ones that laid the eggs in the first place. I've many beautiful images of mollusc eggs around the shoreline, sadly I cannot use or label any of these egg images until I see what's actually laying them. Best guesses don't make for good records either. Sea slugs and other marine molluscs photograph well but I'd love to see a colour guide to their eggs produced one day.

Darryl Mayer ID will also depend on the size of the ribbons. I'm having trouble visualising these pictures as the angles look strange. It does help with ID's if the subjects are oriented "normally".

Darryl Mayer I appreciate that (take the eggs of Coryphella lineata for example), but when it comes to ID'ing things, size, orientation, location, depth etc all helps. When we look at things (even underwater) we visualise things more easily when oriented "naturally". Just trying to help folks help others with their ID skills.

Andy Horton Onchidoris bilamellata is the most likely

Penny Martin Than you for all the comments .... this is the natural angle ... they are on horse mussels on the underside of a floating fishing pontoon approx 0.5 m underneath the surface ( but always underwater) I have seen O B around and there are empty barnacles .

Andy Horton http://www.glaucus.org.uk/ODoris.jpg

Liz Morris Vis was pretty good in the strait yesterday... managed 55minutes in 6 degrees - lots of nudidudis Coryphella lineata chomping down on some oaten pipe hydroids, Tubularia indivisa. Lots of scorpion fish eggs too... will post you some inspiring (if not very good!) pictures soon. Anyone else managed a dive locally yet?? Your photos, relevant dive spottings and comments are all welcome here!

Ryan Mowat Matt Biber (filling out his Seasearch form!!) and I dived under Menai Bridge at slack on Wednesday evening. Awesome dive, 4m viz, life everywhere, had torches on the whole time though

Ruth Sharratt I'm thinking of diving the Strait tomorrow. LW Liverpool is 17.09 which makes slack around 14.00. I'm hoping to get some good pics. Anyone fancy joining me?

Liz Morris the cable ruth... be careful though its springy now :-) loooing forward to seeing some spring season dive pics :-)

Message posted on Seasearch North Wales on 22 Feb 2013
Tony Gilbert Interesting colouration for a Flabellina pedata, found on West coasts of Scotland, usually most I've seen have a more distinct purple colouration (as can be seen by the other two in the album). This is much more like an F. affinis (which has a more southerly distribution). The key id features for this UK F. pedata are the annulate rhinophores are less lamellate, and more importantly the cerata are less pedunculate - from the body. The length was more like 30mm, rather than average 20mm. At first glance you could be mistaken in thinking it was F. affinis - so was lucky as I've seen many F. affinis in Canary Islands. https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.236433703157387.57884.100003722780643&type=3#!/photo.php?fbid=236433903157367&set=a.236433703157387.57884.100003722780643&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva F. affinis has opaque purple pigment near the tip of the cerata.

Bernard Picton The rhinophores in F. pedata are not annulate at all, Tony, not less.. The way things are moving about these days we'll have to start collecting and checking when we get something like this which seems to be off the edge of the normal range of variation....

Lucas CerCur I'm uploading a short paper that can help to thid issue.

Jim Anderson You can see the range of colours I've recorded here http://www.nudibranch.org/Scottish%20Nudibranchs/flabellina-pedata.html

Lucas CerCur Jim, this is the same tale that A. papillosa. We have discover that in Europe are more than one species under this name because we are studying the family around the Word. But the same can happens with violet Flabellina in Europe.

Lucas CerCur In fact, Flabellina ischitana (fron the Gulf of Naples) was considered by all people as F. affinis.

Lucas CerCur In fact, Schmekel and Portmann (1982) called as "aberrant F. affinis", beacuse, its reproductive system was different from the typical of F. affinis.

Lucas CerCur It is included in the Doctoral Thesis of a Moroccan student that I'm advicing.

Lucas CerCur The description is not published yet.

Jim Anderson Lucas - do you want samples of any of these purple Flabellina I come across?

Tony Gilbert Thanks Bernard Picton for the clarification... as always :-) Jim Anderson, I photographed a similar one on Inish Is (the wall), Firth of Lorne, May 2012, depth 15-22m. This maybe more accessible. https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.236433703157387.57884.100003722780643&type=1#!/photo.php?fbid=237742786359812&set=a.236433703157387.57884.100003722780643&type=3&theater It is interesting to see these variations, and can send images on request.

Bernard Picton Great observation Tony, I'm sure we need to take another look at these... I note too that the radula of Coryphella lineata in the Mediterranean was a bit different to ones from Ireland. At the time I put it down to the range of variation, but it's another one we should look carefully at...

João Pedro Silva Very few F. pedata here right now but still I found one today: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpsilva1971/8386696607/

Tony Gilbert I'll be looking out for the purple opaque tips then, is this diagnostic for F. affinis - all variations of, or just Portugal Joao?

João Pedro Silva The purple opaque tips of the cerata are characteristic of F. affinis alone, at least in this area.

João Pedro Silva Here you can see it in more detail: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpsilva1971/5830437031/ In F. pedata, the cerata haven't got this superficial pigmentation.

Tony Gilbert Btw, has anyone seen this colouration (my original post image) south of West Scotland or north of? (is it a northern variation, only on West Atlantic coasts).

Tony Gilbert Thanks João Pedro Silva, sorry I meant F. affinis and not F. pedata (that doesn't have the purple tips). Purple tips maybe diagnostic for your area, F. affinis (Lanzarote) doesn't seem to have them. http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyjgilbert-images/7102523395/in/set-72157629775715919/

João Pedro Silva The purple superficial pigment on the cerata spreads over a larger area of the cerata, not as concentrated near the tip as in the individuals we find here, but it's still present.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 13 Jan 2013
Taxonomy
Animalia (Kingdom)
  Mollusca (Phylum)
    Gastropoda (Class)
      Heterobranchia (Subclass)
        Opisthobranchia (Infraclass)
          Nudibranchia (Order)
            Dexiarchia (Suborder)
              Aeolidida (Infraorder)
                Flabellinoidea (Superfamily)
                  Flabellinidae (Family)
                    Coryphella (Genus)
                      Coryphella lineata (Species)
Associated Species