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Diplosoma listeri

Lahille, 1890

Erling Svensen Look at this Diplosoma listerianum - all the small crustaceans.....

Bernard Picton It's like looking down a microscope, underwater...

Erling Svensen Do you want me to put a D800 housing in order, Bernard? You can move your viewfinder from the old housing to this one, and just sell your old housing ;-) (can I put it this way...?)

João Pedro Silva Make sure it's sufficient to sell the "housing" and not the "house" :)

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 04 Apr 2013
George Brown Hi, is this Diplosoma listerianum? Very delicate sheets and globes growing on algae. Locally quite common. Duncraig Castle near Plockton, Loch Carron. Depth 3 metres.

Bernard Picton Yes, George, I'd be pretty sure of this one.

George Brown Thank you Bernard!

David Kipling Thin sheets on algae in the shallows fits with D list, but what features of the organism itself should we be looking for Bernard?

Niels Schrieken This is rather common in The Netherlands.

Bernard Picton We need to ask John Bishop that, he keeps them as pets. I think the small bright spots around each zooid are possibly characteristic. I do think there might be a more extensive, invasive, Diplosoma. I'll look out a picture.

Wilfried Bay-Nouailhat Hi Bernard, Here we have also completely translucent, D. listerianum without punctuation.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 23 Sep 2012
Judy Revell Dived at Ord in Skye. Eelgrass found very shallow waters 2m. The Eelgrass was covered with this growth over quite a large area. On magnification looks like eggs of some sort? Dont know why the picture I have posted is so small.

David Kipling The 'eggs' are zooids of the compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum. You can see exhalent openings on the lump in the very middle, opening off to the left. Common shallow-water species esp on algae (yes I know this isn't algae!).

Message posted on Seasearch Identifications on 23 Sep 2013
Kevin Jones Saw this in Lyme Bay, Dorset....can anyone advise me as to what it is, I am guessing its a sponge?

James Lynott I think that is a type of colonial sea squirt known as a Star Ascidian.

David Kipling Ring of ~ eight animals (white) around a common cloaca in the middle. Actually it's a sheet, but looks like a sponge lump here as it's growing over something and following the contours.

Kevin Jones David, should this animal actually be flat normally......rather than growing over something?

Martin Gray Didn't you find something like this, though in red, earlier this year Mary Harris

Sarah Bowen It comes in lots of different colours; it's the pattern that is distinctive. Mostly blue, yellow, cream, brown with contrast highlights. And it often grows over other things, so although it should be flat, often doesn't look it.

Star ascidian (Botryllus schlosseri

Kevin Jones many thanks everyone....can now add that to my Sea Search Observers list

David Kipling I like to see squirts on Seasearch forms ;)

James Lynott An example of B. schlosseri growing over another sea squirt. Can anyone advise on the ID of the other two solitary squirts? http://flic.kr/p/eJgRCu

David Kipling It's growing over Ascidia mentula. It has the oral siphon (water-in) at the top, and the atrial (water-out) siphon way down the side. Note the reddish colour on the test. The other one (a translucent, milky appearance a bit like Lalique glass) with a vague pinkish tinge and siphons closer together is Ascidia virginia. Virginia is always very clean, mentula is usually covered with stuff growing on it unless very young.

David Kipling You have nice Bot schloss here too, as well as patches of Diplosoma listerianum. Was this a relatively shallow location? http://www.flickr.com/photos/jlynott/9011126712/in/set-72157634053596577

James Lynott Thank you David for your help. Yes that was quite shallow, less than 10m.

David Kipling Thought so. D listerianum is usually small fragile transparent patches in shallow water (often on kelp), whereas you get the larger and coloured (white bits) D spongiforme in deeper water. Which boat were you using for this trip btw?

Wendy Northway will they suffocate the squirt on which they are growing?

David Kipling No :) The test of the solitary squirt is protective - thick and made of cellulose. All the important interactions with the outside world (water in/out for feeding and breathing, release of sperm/eggs/poo) takes place through the two siphons. So as long as they are clear the squirt is happy. In fact it's probably better protected with the epibiont coverage.

Wendy Northway so it won't grow over the siphons?

David Kipling It could try I suppose! The siphons are very sensitive and contractile, so I doubt it'd get a hold. Imagine the siphon filly closed and something does grow over ... when the siphon then expands by muscular action it'd rip a hole in whatever is above it. So the movement should keep it clean. The test is often rough deliberately to encourge epibiont coverage and thus camouflage and protection - some tropical squirts are always hidden except for siphons.

Wendy Northway thank you!

James Lynott We were originally supposed to be with creag ard charters but his boat had engine problems so they arranged for us to dive with Atlantic Dive Services which was great. Thanks for the IDs of the other colonial squirts as well!

Message posted on Seasearch Identifications on 12 Jun 2013
Wendy Northway I wonder if anyone knows what this is - fresh water sponge in Capernwray, it's not the main sponge I'm interested in, but if you look closely on the top RHS of the sponge, there are some transparent volcano shaped critters. Interested in what they are - sponge/squirt? I couldn't get much closer in so this is the only picture I've got

Erling Svensen I think the vulcanic things is from an colonial ascidien called Diplosoma listerianum. Could be wrong, but I have seen this i Norway many times.

Wendy Northway NB - fresh water, not marine

Erling Svensen :-(

Peter H van Bragt These arejust the outermost extensions of the oscullae, (don' tknow if Im spell this correctly) the end of the drainage system of th sponege. Water is filtered through the porous walls of the sponge and clean water is channeled out through these vents.

Peter H van Bragt BTW Erling, it' s the same function as for these composite tunicates vents.

Wendy Northway thanks very much Peter - learn something new every day!

Tony Gilbert I've not been able to ID them as yet either. Took the macro down yesterday to shoot them again. I've been finding them in the Lynx-Cave, inside and outside (mostly inside where they are small but in profusion), the Podsnap stern deck (wood) - a few, on bare rock, not in exposed positions above 15m, i.e shaded areas, such as the sun-lee of the roadway to Poddy - a few. And yesterday, I found the best specimens so far, at 17-21m, at the sump, growing on horizontal hard substrate in open colonies, some are about 15cm across - and mostly elliptical, and have distinct nodules of raised sponge matter. The raised oscules are quite distinct. Additionally, I've found 2-3mm high freshwater hydroids in there, which appear to grow on some of the external shell areas of the zebra mussels. These hydroids are found in more profusion, and bigger, in vivian quarry, where I've been photographing them for a year. The sponges though, I heard they die back during the winter - i.e. cooler water, but this year has been mild, and there seems to be a profusion of the them - found mostly in the areas nearer to the entry/exit points. Perhaps because the sun is from the south so it could be light levels that determine the habitat. Am still processing mine, will post soon.

Jade Berman All the known freshwater sponges (although they are poorly known) in the UK are in the family Spongillidae and there are 13 accepted species (there may be many more). Freshwater sponges are normally identified from their gemmule structure and the gemmuloscleres within them (structures for asexual reproduction). So you would need a sample from the sponge and then you could try and narrow it down further by preparing a spicule prep. If you would like more instructions on how to do this I can send it through...

Wendy Northway that would be interesting Jade Berman - if you could pm me please. Thankyou

Tony Gilbert Lemme know when you go Wendy - might pop along and take some more piccies. Last weekend I thought about tasting and touching, after the diving. Here are my piccies. https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.173485702785521.38902.100003722780643&type=1#!/media/set/?set=a.236430376491053.57883.100003722780643&type=3

Wendy Northway thanks Tony - you have managed to capture the transparent oscullea nicely!

Tony Gilbert Thanks Wend I was thinking about it and found these on the Podsnap after 5mins of searching it. They were in a bad position and hard to get imagery. We found more on the VW beetle, after freeing a sturgeon from being tangled in weed (they are sluggish at this time of year). And, then by chance went over the sump, where we found the large ones, horizontal on rock at 20m -> all others until this time I'd seen were on vertical hard-substrate/surfaces mostly in shady areas, above 15m, and not open ground as these were. After 40mins, I lost dexterity and couldn't shoot effectively anymore. Second dive was much better, but we went far side, where we couldn't find any sponges (Wessex helicopter/Candida), but found 3 sturgeon in a 5m square - so macrofest on the head of one.

Wendy Northway there's also some good specimens at Chepstow - I'm hoping to go March so will try and get some pictures

Tony Gilbert Great. I guess these sponges are found around the UK, but not often seen because people are not looking in say rivers or lakes as much. But quarries open up a new raft of freshwater marine life previously less seen.

Message posted on Seasearch Identifications on 07 Jan 2013
Niels Schrieken Aplidium glabrum. Netherlands, Bruinisse, Oosterschelde.

David Kipling Looks like a thin transparent delicate test over zooids, as opposed to a solid mass. I would have said Diplosoma?

Niels Schrieken You are right David. This is Diplosoma listerianum.

Bernard Picton Is this Asterocarpa humilis in the background?

Niels Schrieken Ascidiella aspersa.

Bernard Picton Oh, not with those siphons I think! Have you got other photos?

Niels Schrieken Tomorrow I will go back to the same spot will make some pictures.

Niels Schrieken Why do you it's asterocarpa? As far as I know this sea squirt is never found in the Netherlands.

Bernard Picton Just a guess, Niels. I've not seen many ascidians with siphons like that, with such obvious papillae. I've not seen Asterocarpa either! It is well established in Northern France and SW England now. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e01215217m4q8864/

David Kipling http://www.springerlink.com/content/e01215217m4q8864/MediaObjects/10530_2012_286_Fig1_HTML.jpg

David Kipling (that should be a link to the key pic in the paper)

Bernard Picton Oh, it's not that then, I remembered the nice pattern, but Asterocarpa doesn't have any papillae.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 03 Oct 2012
George Brown Hi. Is this Diplosoma spongiforme? Portree Pier, Isle of Skye, 4.0m depth.

David Kipling It's what I've been putting down as that, yes. [That doesn't mean much, I appreciate!] From John Ryland's corrected key: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/ascidians/Corrected_ascidian_key.pdf Colony thin (<2 mm), transparent; intertidal and just below, often on algae = Diplosoma listerianum Colony thicker (4 mm), opaque; subtidal, especially on rock surfaces = Diplosoma spongiforme

George Brown Thank you David. And thanks for the very useful key.

Bernard Picton I'm not sure if the complete lack of white rings makes this something else. I've got something in Strangford which looks like this and is behaving like an invasive...

David Kipling George and Bernard ... I've posted something similar from Blackwater, see what the two of you think.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 24 Aug 2012
Martin Pratt Is this a squirt or a sponge? Seen off Beesands, Devon in 20m depth on rock. Suggestions of ID appreciated.

Liz Morris Looks like a silted Diplosoma listerianum type didemnidy squirt to me, but i'm sure someone else will have a better answer!!

Martin Pratt Thanks Liz for hint. Lookinging in Encyl Marine Life I am more inclined to go with Diplosoma spongiforme because of colour and pores on the surface.

David Kipling Yup Diplosoma spongiforme. D lit is think transparent sheet and usually in shallows, D sponge a bit deeper and this more sponge-like overall growth pattern.

David Kipling Here's some pics of both: http://www.mer-littoral.org/32/photo-diplosoma-listerianum-wb.php?photo=1

David Kipling http://www.mer-littoral.org/32/diplosoma-spongiforme.php

David Kipling Not easy and I must admit I'd feel a lot happier with these IDs if I'd looked at zooids or whatever you're supposed to look at to really tell them apart. Then we could make a more definite photo album of the two forms species.

Martin Pratt Thanks all for help. What caught my eye with this one was that it formed a rather phallic looking tube that was wafting around in the current. I assume that the squirt was wrapped around a strand of something else. See bottom of my picture.

David Kipling Yes, we spent a lot of time last week watching this stuff wrapped around hydroid stems, Styela clava, and feather worm tubes sticking out of the silt. It's really soft and delicate and needs something to grow over, so something sticking out like that is great, keeps it out of the silt.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 15 Aug 2012
Penny Martin and this one ??

Wilfried Bay-Nouailhat Hi Penny, this is a little colony of Diplosoma listerianum

Penny Martin Thanks .... it isn't in my book ... I guess I had better get a tunicate ID book ... what would you recommend ??

Wilfried Bay-Nouailhat I think the book is still to be written ;o) Here are two main references for this species: Lahille, F. (1890) Recherches sur les Tuniciers, Imprimerie Lagarde et Sebille, Toulouse. 330 pages. and Lafargue, F. (1967) Les peuplements sessiles de l'infralittoral rocheux de l'Archipel de Glénan: Anthozoaires - Ascidies, Faculté de sciences de l'Université de Paris. Pages 43 à 135.

David Kipling John Bishop grows these in the lab - including one colony he has kept alive for something like 16 years!

Wilfried Bay-Nouailhat David, this is a very long life span ! older than me (well naerly ! ) are you not speaking of months ?

David Kipling No, 16 years. I work on ageing, and this is one reason I started to talk to John. 16 years of feeding them daily with fresh phytoplankton, amazing achievement.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 28 Jul 2012
Erling Svensen Could this be the Polyclinum aurantium? I do not know about any other that it possible could be

Wilfried Bay-Nouailhat I think it is a didemnid, it looks like a picture in F. Lafargue et M. Wahl, the Didemnid ascidian fauna of France, ID'd as Diplosoma listerianum

Message posted on NE Atlantic Tunicata on 24 Jun 2012
Erling Svensen The Geitodoris planata from yesterday. I saw hundreds yesterday, and many between the Ciona. When looking at the pictures, I can see eggs. Do anybody knows if these are Geitodoris eggs?

Brendan Oonk The eggs of G.planata are ribbon shaped. For foto see website of John de Jong http://electest.home.xs4all.nl/Biologie%20Oosterschelde%20en%20Grevelingen/Zeenaaktslakken/Geitodoris%20planata%20(Millennium%20Wratslak)/slides/DSC06813.html

Erling Svensen OK. Thanks. Then I do not have any clue what these eggs are.

Peter H van Bragt Are you shure they are eggs???? Could it be possible that we are looking at developing Diplosoma listerianum (Tunicates) colonies? Are tehre better/detailed pictures available. Geitodoris planata was first observed in the Netehrlands in 1999. Ar that time there was an abundance of Mycale micracanthoxea. The G. planata population developed very fast and in 2001-2003 we found on occasions up to 30-450 speciemn per dive (75 minutes). At that time the sponges where rapidly depleted by scavenging nudi's and subsequently in the next year the G. planata population collapsed almost completely. At this moment we only occasional find them back in very small numbers. The sponge population is recovering again due to lack of predation. We have observed that G. planata also seems to be sensitive to severe winters. Cheers Peter H. Peter H van Bragt

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 21 Jun 2012
Erling Svensen This one must be eating? Or...?

David Kipling Certainly looks like it Erling. I guess with tunicates that once you have got thru the tunic then the insides are pretty soft. So a radula that can eat one tunicate should allow it to eat a similar sort of tunicate (provided they like the taste!). What ascidians do this species usually eat?

Erling Svensen In "my book" I can read that they eat Botryllus schlosseri, Dendrondoa grossularia and Diplosoma listerianum. So may be they like the taste :-)

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 05 Feb 2012
Animalia (Kingdom)
  Chordata (Phylum)
    Tunicata (Subphylum)
      Ascidiacea (Class)
        Aplousobranchia (Order)
          Didemnidae (Family)
            Diplosoma (Genus)
              Diplosoma listeri (Species)
Associated Species