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Facelina auriculata

(Müller, 1776)


Peter H van Bragt Here is, what I believe, a juvenile Facelina auriculata from the Eastern Scheldt of The Netherlands. Typical, in comparison, with F. bostoniensis are the relatively shorter and more clustered cerata and very slender body. I checked all my F. bostoniensis and F. auriculata pics but could not find any solid evidence for alternating complete and incomplete lamellae on either species as mentioned in Thompson and Brown ( 1984). I only found such incomplete lamellae on the bottom ones but that is present in both species. These lamellae are less developed anyway compared to the middle and top ones. Having said so..... F. bostoniensis is a hypervariable species and molecular evidence is appreciated to distinguish both species.

Christian Skauge The blueish color on the cerata and oral tentacles is a dead giveaway in my opinion - so is the white pigmentation on the front side of the upper half of the rhino's ;-)

Brendan Oonk Cristian: I have seen a belueish color on juvenile F. bostoniensis too. (Not so bright as in Peter's pic)

João Pedro Silva Antoni López-Arenas Cama has some photos of F. bostoniensis with the blueish colour (http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/4739022167/). I'm not convinced the blue hue is more present on juveniles of F. auriculata than in adults or vice versa. Paraphrasing Peter H van Bragt: "F. auriculata is a hypervariable species and molecular evidence is appreciated to distinguish both species"

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 21 May 2013
Paula Lightfoot Facelina auriculata?

João Pedro Silva Yes, F. auriculata.

Tony Gilbert Yes agree, very nice shot.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 29 Jul 2012
Peter H van Bragt Facelina auriculata, Eastern Scheldt, The Netherlands, June 2010. Hi Ian and other nudiphiles, although this pigment line is variable in length and appearance, I find that the broken white line of pigment spots on the front of the cerata, directly underneath the white ring at the top is highly characteristic for F. auriculata and distinguishes it from F. bostoniensis. Cheers Peter H van Bragt

Ian Smith Thanks Peter. What you say was my understanding, but thanks to you and Godfried, and Rene's picture, I've adjusted to allow for occasional tiny spots on the front of F. bostoniensis cerata. I hope Rene will excuse me expressing my doubts; I ought to have said in my original message that I thought the form of the cerata resembled F.bostoniensis - it was just the odd spots that concerned me. It's been a useful exchange for me.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 25 Jul 2012
Rob Maller Facelina auriculata mating, found during today's dive. Dutch Oosterschelde

Rob Maller Are we looking at the reproductive organs here?

Lenka Juskaničová AMAZING !!!

Godfried van Moorsel I guess so. This photo nicely demonstrates the isolated spots and stripes on the front side of the cerata which I believe are characteristic for this species.

João Pedro Silva They may be reduced to a single small subapical spot, sometimes not even clearly visible: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpsilva1971/7161573018/

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 12 May 2012
Rob Maller One of my favo nudies of the dutch waters... so colourful! Found this sp. last Sunday near the Zeelandbrug in the Oosterschelde. 16mtrs depth on low tide. Facelina auriculata.....

Pascal Van Acker hij blijft mooi

Rob Maller Thx Pascal... you'll be the first one to see it when you're back in the water (if I find one again of course..) :D

João Pedro Silva Great shot. These are usually very small here in Portugal, although very common.

Rob Maller @ João Pedro Silva... this one was some 3 to 4cm in length; no crop

João Pedro Silva Here I've seen one once 2cm long... I called it a giant.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 29 May 2012
George Stoyle Nudibranch (Facelina auriculata) at night: Nikon D700, Nauticam, Inon Z240, 105mm Macro, f/22, 1/160, ISO400

Message posted on Underwater Macro Photographers on 27 Apr 2012
Tamsyn MAnn Could someone Id these for me please?

João Pedro Silva Facelina auriculata and F. annulicornis.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 07 Jul 2013
Erling Svensen Got this one midnight last night. Here in North Norway this is not a nightdive as we have light all 24 hours. But - this nudi was new to me. Any one? Aprox 1 cm long.

João Pedro Silva Facelina auriculata

Erling Svensen Thanks. A new specie in my collection :-)

João Pedro Silva It´s very common here in Portugal although I've found very few this year.

Lucas CerCur This is the type species of the genus Facelina. I would like to study some material from UK and/or Northern Europe.

Klas Malmberg Aquatilis Facelina auriculata and a nice one!!!

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 12 May 2013
David Fenwick Snr Can anyone explain what's going on here with this sea slug egg. Elysia viridis and Facelina auriculata were on the rock and the egg was similar to others with E. viridis. It's the orange dotted transparent area at the 11 o'clock position that I'm interested in, seems strange for it to have come from an Elysia.

David Fenwick Snr It's almost as if a small Limacia clavigera was caught on the egg as the tide went out but it seems too transparent for that.

David Kipling Semi-transparent blob with yellow dots ... if it's a nudi, how about one of the Polyceras or Ancula gibbosa? Not sure if you get them that shallow.

David Fenwick Snr Yes both recorded shallow here so very possible.

Christian Skauge Colorwise it looks like it could be an Onchidoris luteocincta :-)

David Kipling I see what you mean - there's a little red mark. Is this part of the animal David (as opposed to being underneath or a bit of stray red weed)?

David Fenwick Snr The redness appears to be part of the animal but I cannot be sure; the spotting is on the surface the red below. The surface of the animal appears to be finely granular. Will add another image.

David Kipling Ancula is found close to Bottrylus ascidians according to habitas, so would be right for the sort of things you get under rocks. It also has a circular spawn by the look of it from Bernard's picture. Perhaps those are actually its eggs? http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/photo.asp?item=bep2_3285

David Fenwick Snr There wasn't a lot about on the habitat yesterday, pretty low diversity, the reason I kept an eye open for slugs was that there was quite a bit of Alcyonidium gelatinosum about and I found the Elysia and Facelina soon after discovering it. Just a pity I didn't actually see the small slug on the egg mass to get it in water to photograph. Yes ascidians about but no large masses of them seen. So could we be dealing with a spent slug after it has laid?

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 12 Feb 2013
George Brown Is this small nudibranch Facelina auriculata? About 20mm long. Isle of Muck, Scotland. Depth 6 metres.

João Pedro Silva Yes, it's F. auriculata.

João Pedro Silva Not sure about the one on the lower right corner, though. Eubranchus perhaps?

João Pedro Silva Hang on, there are at least 4 of those smaller ones on the photo.

George Brown Might be João. What about Tergipes tergipes?

João Pedro Silva More likely to be T. tergipes. You probably can see on higher resolution.

George Brown And many thanks for the Facelina ID confirmation. Wrt Tergipes, if I zoom in I can recognise the zigzag pattern of the cerata. And as you've spotted, they come in gangs in this part of the world feeding on Obelia.

João Pedro Silva You're welcome, George. F. auriculata is actually very common here in Portugal.

O Gajo Dos Olivais Yeap, always look for the reddish spot behind the rinophores. Its the oesofagus. Its visible in the species. Anelated rinophores, first group of cerata separated from the others, white tips on the oral tentacles and rinophores... I'd say this is F. auriculata v. curta... what do you think?

George Brown Wow, very well put Fernando! Many thanks.

João Pedro Silva I'd say simply F. auriculata. Isn't F. auriculata var curta a junior synonim of F. bostoniensis? I know you've been reading a lot MarLIN, but there's this "additional information": http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=4645

O Gajo Dos Olivais Yeap. And I'm not even shore it is curta. The camera angle and the way the cerata are don't give a clear view of the "tail" . I was just wanting to know because on a picture I have, that extension of the mantle is almost the size of the cerata covered area. :)

João Pedro Silva Btw, Fernando, I'd say the blue iridiscence on the cerata is a key characteristic but those you've referred are common to many others. Check Bernard Picton and Christine Morrow's descriptions especially where they refer the "Key identification features": http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15270

O Gajo Dos Olivais I got messed up now JPSilva. It reads "... lacks a blue irridescent sheen distinguishing it from "Facelina auriculata".. so... Is it or is it not synonim?

João Pedro Silva It's very clear: Facelina bostoniensis "lacks a blue irridescent sheen distinguishing it from Facelina auriculata", meaning Facelina auriculata has the blue iridescence on the cerata. The junior synonim (i.e., invalid) for Facelina bostoniensis is "Facelina auriculata var curta". Same with F. curta, F. drummondi and F. gigas. I hope this helps.

O Gajo Dos Olivais Oh. Ok. Thanks. Not yet very familiar witb what "junior synonim" and other terms mean :)

João Pedro Silva Ok, I'll explain in a private message so we're not flooding the group with this.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 22 Jun 2012
Nils Aukan Facelina auriculata,+Doto C+ Tergipes tergipes,Tjuvholmen,23.06-2013

Ron Silver cold water nudis

Nils Aukan Yes, lots of them here

Message posted on UWphotographers on 25 Jun 2013
Richard Yorke Could this be Cuthona rubescens. It seems that is the only nudibranch with redish bands half way up its rhinophores

David Kipling Where was this taken Richard?

Richard Yorke Just edited it to say Llyn Peninsula, the edit does not seem to have appeared :-(

Terry Griffiths Sorry Richard i would say not a bit more like F.bostoniensis very similar in colour too the one we get in the SW,will post you a photo of Cuthona rubescens.

Terry Griffiths

Richard Yorke If there was a picture in that I am not allowed to see it! The pictures of F.bostoniensis I have seen do not have the redish bands half way up its rhinophores

Terry Griffiths Sorry trying to sort it out

Richard Yorke No sign of lamellate rhinophores on mine like David's picture either (though his is a better picture).

Terry Griffiths Sent you the photo Richard.

Peter H van Bragt Juv. F. bostoniensis. C. rubes. does not have so many cerata

Peter H van Bragt Lamellate rhinophores are not always very prominent

Bernard Picton The cerata shape, shape of the white splash, pigmented oesophagous, all point to F. bostoniensis.

Richard Yorke Thanks for everyone's help

Richard Yorke Now I know more about what I am looking for I have found 2 more from the same dive! The third follows.

Richard Yorke The third

Sarah Bowen Your third one is Facelina auriculata (just to add another into the mix). And the one above it also seems to have a rosy hue behind the rhinophores; you can get orange colour-morphs of F. auriculata.

David Kipling The third has that almost-subliminal blue iridescence on it - classic F auriculata. Sorry Richard!

Richard Yorke Oh well! I will keep trying, practice can only help :-) I had assumed the 'rosy hue behind the rhinophores' was what Bernard had referred to as the 'pigmented oesophagous'. Still, my species list for that dive is getting longer!

Sarah Bowen Sadly, F. bostoniensis also has pigment. But the main difference seems to be that the cerata in F. auriculata are somewhat shorter, fatter and appear in groups whereas F. bostoniensis looks 'shaggy' if that makes sense. F. auriculata also tends to have splashes of white pigment around the tips, but F. bostoniensis only seems to have well-defined white tips.

Julia Nunn Facelina auriculats is a slim animal with bluish iridescence; bostoniensis is a fatter more robust animal, with no iridescence or very little

João Pedro Silva Julia, check the previous comments to see the photo identified as F. auriculata.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 01 Oct 2013
David Fenwick Snr Found this one today, north of the Cressars Reef, Penzance, Cornwall, under a rock on mixed / sandy ground. Extreme lowershore. I know there's people here far better than I am at these. Help would be most appreciated. Thanks.

David Fenwick Snr Species was about 10mm, it was sharing the same rock with egg laying Elysia viridis, and not a Codium in sight!

João Pedro Silva Facelina auriculata

David Fenwick Snr Much appreciated Joao. Thank you.

João Pedro Silva You're welcome, David! Some animals with less white stripes and dots on the cerata may be more difficult to differenciate from F. bostoniensis but this one appears to be more straightforward.

David Fenwick Snr Yes I realise Facelina can be tricky, thanks for the explanation; it's only the second of the genus I've found in four years, don't see them that often at all.

David Fenwick Snr Is this var. coronata?

João Pedro Silva I've never seen var. curta so I just use plain F. auriculata. You should be also be able to see F. annulicornis which is very frequent here in Portugal during the summer: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpsilva1971/7651793316/

João Pedro Silva Isn't F. auriculata var curta = F. bostoniensis?

David Fenwick Snr I don't know, I just looked at the Marlin website to get more info. on the species and found it describes two vars. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=3332#

João Pedro Silva Take a look at the synonyms for F. bostoniensis at the Marlin website: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=4645

João Pedro Silva Habitas doesn't mention two vars because it mentions two distinct species: F. auriculata and F. bostoniensis. And it also mentions F. annulicornis: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15250

João Pedro Silva Did you check NBN Gateway's map? http://www.searchnbn.net/gridMap/gridMap.jsp?allDs=1&srchSpKey=NBNSYS0000175324

David Fenwick Snr Sorted, Marlin recognise curta as F. bostoniensis http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=4645

David Fenwick Snr I ask if the Marlin F. auriculata page can be updated

David Fenwick Snr Have just done it.

Bernard Picton Silly Marlin, this was sorted in Thompson, 1984, Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs, vol.2 apart from the fact that coronata was used instead of auriculata as Thompson wasn't sure which var/species equated with this, the oldest name. I still have reservations about using the name bostoniensis, it would be nice to get samples for DNA to see how far apart the Boston ones are from the NE Atlantic ones, or whether populations in Iceland and Greenland are maintaining a genetic continuity.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 12 Feb 2013
Ab van Lenten Discodoris Atromaculata l'Escala, Spain Canon 40D, 60mm 2.8, 2x DS160, Subsea +10 1/125, f/16, ISO 250

João Pedro Silva Peltodoris atromaculata

Ab van Lenten According to wiki we are using a synonym, same species?

João Pedro Silva Quite, but you have to understand there are valid, accepted synonyms and unaccepted ones, usually junor (described later). That is why we don't use the invalid synonyms, otherwise we could still use Doris auriculatus, the name Müller gave to Facelina auriculata in 1776. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facelina_auriculata

Ab van Lenten Ok, I see I need to read some more about this, thanks

Kirstie Knowles For those of us still getting up to speed with the taxonomy of these beasties, I find using WORMS (World Register of Marine Species) to be very useful (and user friendly to non-specialists). Obviously updates happening all the time but the WORMS editors are specialists themselves and pretty onto it.

Tony Gilbert To me this looks like a Coryphella browni, the cerata tips have white rings just below them (and not covering the whole tip), and no blue tinges, so didn't think it was F. bostoniensis. Animal was 1.5cm long if that. As you can see it appears to munching away quite happily at this hydroid. I think this one is Aglaophenia pluma, which I think Doto koenneckeri is specific to, and was found in the strong tidal streams of the Menai Straits. This food source for C. browni isn't its primary, so I thought it was interesting to see the image.

Torjus Haukvik To me, the rhinophores doesn't look like they're belonging ta a Flabellina. I also have the understanding that Facelina auriculata is supposed to have the blue tinges, not F. bostoniensis. Feel free to correct me if I'm wrong.. I would say Facelina bostoniensis..

Tony Gilbert Thanks Torjus. As I understand it, both F. bostoniensis and F. auriculata have blue tinges/irridescence, but F. bostoniensis has them to a lesser degree. I've images of both Facelinas and we see mostly F. auriculata in Menai Straits but also C. brownii, both are usually on Tubularias. The F. bostoniensis I've mostly seen are quite large anyway, so that doesn't help. I wondered whether F. bostiensis has white below the cerata tips, or whole of the cerata tip? I.e. Are the white just below the cerata tips diagnostic of a C. browni? Also F. bostoniensis is mostly found on Tubularia, so whether the nudi is C. or F. they are not usually on the hydroid I photographed with the nudi.

Torjus Haukvik You had me pull out some litterature now. My key uses the lamellaes as a character to separate between Facelina and Flabellina, and the blue irridescence to distinguish Facelina bostoniensis from F. auriculata. Although the description of F. bostoniensis states that it can display a blue irridescence in rar occations, the description of F. auriculata states that this allway has blue irridescence. But, my book is quite old, so I'm not going to say anything for certain. About the coloration on the cerata tips in the Flabellina genus, I'm not your guy..! ;)

Tony Gilbert You've solved the nudi ID anyway, thanks! I also had another look at both, and checked a second picture I took. This first picture does show some red around the mouth area, and very long oral tentacles. The second picture, which I didn't post, is a head shot and clearly shows white pigment on the head between the rhinophores. So, I think you were right that it is F. bostoniensis, which is great, cos its my first one in the Straits (I think). So, the cerata tip colouration below the tips isn't diagnostic of C. browni. And, this nudi (F. bostoniensis) is not eating Tubularia or Clava.

Brendan Oonk F.bostoniensis indeed. Although it prefers Tubularia as it's food. It is know to eat all kinds of hydroids and even other nudibranchs

Tony Gilbert Thanks all.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 20 Jun 2012
George Brown Is this small nudibranch Facelina auriculata? About 20mm long. Isle of Muck, Scotland. Depth 6 metres.

João Pedro Silva Yes, it's F. auriculata.

João Pedro Silva Not sure about the one on the lower right corner, though. Eubranchus perhaps?

João Pedro Silva Hang on, there are at least 4 of those smaller ones on the photo.

George Brown Might be João. What about Tergipes tergipes?

João Pedro Silva More likely to be T. tergipes. You probably can see on higher resolution.

George Brown And many thanks for the Facelina ID confirmation. Wrt Tergipes, if I zoom in I can recognise the zigzag pattern of the cerata. And as you've spotted, they come in gangs in this part of the world feeding on Obelia.

João Pedro Silva You're welcome, George. F. auriculata is actually very common here in Portugal.

O Gajo Dos Olivais Yeap, always look for the reddish spot behind the rinophores. Its the oesofagus. Its visible in the species. Anelated rinophores, first group of cerata separated from the others, white tips on the oral tentacles and rinophores... I'd say this is F. auriculata v. curta... what do you think?

George Brown Wow, very well put Fernando! Many thanks.

João Pedro Silva I'd say simply F. auriculata. Isn't F. auriculata var curta a junior synonim of F. bostoniensis? I know you've been reading a lot MarLIN, but there's this "additional information": http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=4645

O Gajo Dos Olivais Yeap. And I'm not even shore it is curta. The camera angle and the way the cerata are don't give a clear view of the "tail" . I was just wanting to know because on a picture I have, that extension of the mantle is almost the size of the cerata covered area. :)

João Pedro Silva Btw, Fernando, I'd say the blue iridiscence on the cerata is a key characteristic but those you've referred are common to many others. Check Bernard Picton and Christine Morrow's descriptions especially where they refer the "Key identification features": http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15270

O Gajo Dos Olivais I got messed up now JPSilva. It reads "... lacks a blue irridescent sheen distinguishing it from "Facelina auriculata".. so... Is it or is it not synonim?

João Pedro Silva It's very clear: Facelina bostoniensis "lacks a blue irridescent sheen distinguishing it from Facelina auriculata", meaning Facelina auriculata has the blue iridescence on the cerata. The junior synonim (i.e., invalid) for Facelina bostoniensis is "Facelina auriculata var curta". Same with F. curta, F. drummondi and F. gigas. I hope this helps.

O Gajo Dos Olivais Oh. Ok. Thanks. Not yet very familiar witb what "junior synonim" and other terms mean :)

João Pedro Silva Ok, I'll explain in a private message so we're not flooding the group with this.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 22 Jun 2012
George Stoyle Flabellina lineata on kelp at night, Scotland. www.earthinfocus.com

Gary Cobb If it were Flabellina lineata it would have fine white lines down its body

Gary Cobb I don't think it is that...will get back to you.

George Stoyle Facelina auriculata?

Jim Anderson Facelina auriculata it is!

Gary Cobb I agree!

George Stoyle it's obvious now I look at it...that'll teach me for being hasty! Thanks :)

Kiki Vleeschouwers A Facelina bostoniensis and in the right upper corner a couple of Cuthona gymnota. The Oosterschelde, the Netherlands

João Pedro Silva I think this is Facelina auriculata due to the white dots on the cerata.

Erwin Koehler read this: http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/22494

Message posted on NUDIBRANCH LOVERS on 08 Aug 2013
Penny Martin Please help settle a discussion between me and a friend, is this coryphella lineata or browni?

David Kipling What features would you look for to differentiate between the two?

Penny Martin white lines down the middle and sides of back ??????

David Kipling Can you waft the cerata out of the way so we can see please ;)

Rob Spray My, quick non expert opinion, would be that the rhinophores suggest this is Facelina auriculata not a Coryphella as they are lamellate...

David Kipling Good eyesight Rob! Can you post a blow-up of the head Penny - in particular that upper rhinophore (the short backwards one, not the longer lower oral process).

Rob Spray I could just be imagining it. I don't think you need a blow to see the rhinophores aren't smooth or even rugose. To be honest there's a difference in the overall appearance (I can't get used to saying jizz) that guides away from Coryphella/Flabellinas. The very long oral processes, lamellate rhinophores, broad body and density and organisation of cerata...

David Kipling Bernard also comments that all the Flabellids (is that the right word?) "conspicuous pointed propodial tentacles at the front corners of the foot". In other words, a couple of additional short pointy things below those long oral processes. I don't see those on this. The pics of C brownii on habitas illustrates this nicely.

David Kipling I wonder if a drawing of a typical flab next an Facelina would be useful - labelling up the different comparative features? As you say, there is a jizz thing. How are your drawings skills Rob?

Rob Spray I don't normally get to draw... I often think what is x? But usually it's because I'm dwelling on the similarities not going for the key features - rhinophores here.

George Brown Another non expert view. On the evidence a Facelina sp. but the "gizz" for me suggests bostoniensis. Need more photos to confirm. It's digital - take loads!

Rob Spray You are completely right... that is what I meant to type! Thanks George Brown. Nothing like auriculata what was I thinking!

George Brown Nae bother. Got to say that on the evidence it'd go down on my Seasearch form as a Facelina sp. Sometimes "gizz" is not enough. Coming from film cameras I'm still guilty of not taking enough digital shots. Maybe why it takes me so long to complete a form!

David Kipling So in answer to Penny's original question ("is this coryphella lineata or browni") the answer is 'no' ;)

David Kipling The pic on Habitas shows these various features Rob mentioned quite well: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=W15260

Rob Spray I'm ashamed... I was so excited to be able to tweak Kipling I let my typing run ahead of my brain, not for the first time. To me although bostoniensis is quite variable they are distinct from the auriculatas we see here and the annulicornis we've seen elsewhere to be a fairly positive ID. I wish I could edit that first post so this thread doesn't start with a misleading mistake...

David Kipling PMSL!

Rob Spray Tena professor?

George Brown Wish I knew what you guys were talking about! I don't even know what "WTF" means. Must be my Presbyterian upbringing!

David Kipling The Victorian equivalent is UMS (upon my soul) George ;)

David Kipling This thread has been a good example of where we've actually discussed the ID and why it might be this versus something else. I am aware that it's easy for these threads to just be "what's this? Oh it's XYZ", which may give the ID but doesn't help anyone else reading in to improve their own ID skills. This is particular important I think for those difficult groups, where there are a lot that look the same and need a good dose of looking at to tease apart. Capturing that sense of jizz is particularly tricky but is often the way we do the ID.

Penny Martin wow ..... what a discussion .... i feel a real novice now ... and definitely need a new ID book .... we are seeing lots similar to this .... and I wonder what they are ???? Thanks for the advice ... I will look again at my photos and see if I can pick the details out .....

Andy Horton It might be an idea with nudibranchs to note the habitat and organisms nearby. And any other small details.

Penny Martin so what was the conclusion on this one ?? bostoniensis or auriculata

David Kipling Auriculata is a bright purple colour, so bostoniensis.

Inga Williamson And longitudinal white bar between rhinophores. Sorted.

Henrique Nascimento Catarina Facelina auriculata this one was very small..... 20120719

Luis Miguens Não te esqueças de as ska"partilhar" em http://skaphandrus.com/pt/underwater-photography/photos :)

Henrique Nascimento Catarina já lá estão... :) estas são antigas... 2012...

Message posted on Scubashooters.net on 25 Jun 2013
René Weterings "Facelina auriculata" Found in The Eastern Scheldt at divesite "Zeelandbrug" on the 17th of july 2012. It was only about 5-10mm, so the picture is heavily cropped.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 19 Jul 2012
Niels Schrieken I would say this is Facelina bostoniensis, because of the red pigmentation on the head. Or is it Facelina auriculata? Picture taken in Zeeland, the Netherlands

João Pedro Silva I'd say it's not F. auriculata. This has thinner and more compact cerata.

John de Jong F. bostoniensis to my opinion, Niels.

Godfried van Moorsel F. bostoniensis indeed, no isolated white spots on front of cerata

Godfried van Moorsel btw no white line between rhinophores ...

Brendan Oonk Perhaps the white line is not such a good characteristic after all :)

Jim Anderson Facelina bostoniensis

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 22 Apr 2012
João Pedro Silva Facelina auriculata Local: Sesimbra, Portugal Spot: Ponta da Passagem Profundidade: ~15m Data: 04-08-2011

Message posted on Nudibranquios on 23 Aug 2013
Paula Young Another ID....with apologies for lack of sharpness, but any help with ID for the three tiny nudibranchs munching on the Tubularia near to the Facelina. Are they 'baby' Facelina, or any possibility they could be Catriona gymnota?? Any ideas, particularly welcome from Mr Bernard Picton??

Brendan Oonk They are Cuthona gymnota.

Paula Young Thanks Brendan, I didn't even notice them until I reviewed my photos.

Bernard Picton The big one on the left is Facelina auriculata, note the markings and the lamellate rhinophores.

Message posted on Seasearch Identifications on 29 Sep 2013
Samantha Varns A few of my own pics species clarification would be appreciated xxx

João Pedro Silva This one is definitelly Limacia clavigera: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911946985641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Not much detail but the arrangement of the cerata makes me think it's probably Flabellina ischitana: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911938905641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Doto fragilis: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911989860641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Limacia clavigera: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911481875641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Flabellina pedata: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911490070641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Flabellina affinis: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911497540641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Not really clear but appears to be Calmella cavolini: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911499990641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Cratena peregrina: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911508385641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Crimora papillata: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911523160641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Facelina auriculata: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911530580641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Facelina annulicornis: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911566780641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Flabellina affinis: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911929510641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Cratena peregrina: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911931670641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

João Pedro Silva Flabellina affinis: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152911935540641&set=a.10152911481660641.1073741835.589765640&type=3&theater

Ian Smith I hope Joao gets those kisses now for his effort ;-0

João Pedro Silva I decided not to identify those from "Africa" because I don't know if they're from the Mediterranean, the Atlantic or the Indian ocean.

Samantha Varns Xxx kisses an thank you xxx

João Pedro Silva Samantha Varns, next time you could allow comments on the album as it makes it a lot easier :)

Samantha Varns Sorry didn't realised it was blocked

Bernard Picton Could you add countries to the African ones?

Samantha Varns Easy they were all in Kenya diving off from mombassa the beach was Diana beach :-) xxx

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 14 Jun 2013
Antoni López-Arenas Cama Facelina bostoniensis? or Facelina coronata with large ceratas? http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/8758406807/in/photostream/

João Pedro Silva I think F. auriculata. Btw, F. coronata is a junior synonym: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=139909

Antoni López-Arenas Cama sorry, so the question is: Facelina auriculata or bostoniensis? :-P

João Pedro Silva It seems too slender for F. bostoniensis.

Brendan Oonk F. auriculata usualy has got white lines/dots on the cerata under the white tips. This one hasn't got that......

João Pedro Silva Yes it does have some, Brendan Oonk. And I've got some shots of F. auriculata where the white dots are almost unnoticeable. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpsilva1971/6797184150/

Brendan Oonk I've got pics as well where there are (allmost) no white lines there. And i know that colouration isn't allways a reliable characteristic..... In the Netherlands we see them more like the ones Erling posted. Not trying to disagree with you. just tried to point out that (to me) this is not a typical F. auriculata.

João Pedro Silva It's not a matter of agreeing or not, Brendan Oonk :) It's a matter of finding out which species it is. It's not a typical F. auriculata to me either but with the variations I've seen within this species I think it might be just another one. Antoni López-Arenas Cama has another photo of a local F. bostoniensis where some of the distinctive features, like the broader foot, are clearer: http://www.flickr.com/photos/alopezarenas/4739022167/

Peter H van Bragt Hi João Pedro Silva, I would agree on F. bostoniensis. Juvenile F. auriculata's are even more slender. Also the cerata seem to be more clustered in F. auriculata and less (as in this pic) in F. bost.

João Pedro Silva Mind you I've yet to find F. bostoniensis here in Portugal. All the variations I've seen were F. auriculata. The cluster density looks like a good distinctive character but it also varies a lot in F. auriculata and this particular photo is not very clear. The species page on Conchsoc (http://www.conchsoc.org/spAccount/facelina-bostoniensis) also mentions the shape of the propodial tentacles (unfortunately not clear in Antoni's photos) and the differences on the lamellae of the rhinophores: all lamellae form complete rings in F. bostoniensis but some are interrupted on the anterior side in F. auriculata (which makes those which form complete rings more conspicuous). Hence I'm now convinced it's F. bostoniensis. Btw, has any of these been included in recent molecular studies?

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 20 May 2013
Lucas CerCur I would acknowledge very much if some of you can collect and send me 2-3 specimens of Facelina auricularia from Nowway, Sweden, Denmark or UK. Is this posible?

David Kipling Is that the same as F. auriculata?

Lucas CerCur Sorry, it has been a mispeling. Yes, it is Facelina auriculata. Material from the Netherlands is wellcome also.

Jussi Evertsen Are you thinking about Facelina coronata? - Facelina auriculata has been used for both coronata and bostoniensis in Norwegian waters previously

Lucas CerCur I don't know sincerely.

Lucas CerCur It should be study carefully publications, potos, pictures, and then to sequence those morphotypes that you can identify.

Lucas CerCur Iim interested in specimens of the species commonly known as F. auriculata, not F. bostoniensis.

Matt Doggett How do you want them fixed?

Lucas CerCur Ethanol 98-95%. Thanks.

Lucas CerCur Photos would be also wellcome.

Message posted on NE Atlantic Nudibranchs on 20 Apr 2013
Taxonomy
Animalia (Kingdom)
  Mollusca (Phylum)
    Gastropoda (Class)
      Heterobranchia (Subclass)
        Opisthobranchia (Infraclass)
          Nudibranchia (Order)
            Dexiarchia (Suborder)
              Aeolidida (Infraorder)
                Aeolidioidea (Superfamily)
                  Facelinidae (Family)
                    Facelina (Genus)
                      Facelina auriculata (Species)
Associated Species